Extractive metallurgy is the practice of removing valuable metals from an ore and refining the extracted raw metals into a purer form. The study of metal production is subdivided into ferrous metallurgy (also known as black metallurgy) and non-ferrous metallurgy (also known as colored metallurgy). Metals are commercially extracted from minerals at low cost and minimum effort. However, the ultimate beginnings cannot be clearly ascertained and new discoveries are both continuous and ongoing. Topics studied in physical metallurgy include crystallography, material characterization, mechanical metallurgy, phase transformations, and failure mechanisms. 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